Breast cancer as a multifactorial disease has been classified among the major causes of morbidity and mortality in women across the world, with a higher prevalence among post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis, a condition characterized by altered bone mineralization is also commonly found among post-menopausal women. Consequently, post-menopausal women are at risk of morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer and postmenopausal osteoporosis. This may not be unconnected to the fact that, there may be existent biochemical links between the two mayhems, which might rally round between the cellular and molecular connectivity based on the actions and inactions of RANKL, estrogen, free radicals-induced oxidative stress and metabolic implications of age related obesity among others. Cells and tissues including breast and bone are more prone to oxidative stress with age, and oxidative stress could alter the activity of key proteins and pathways required for protection against breast cancer and osteoporosis. As a result, the potentials of antioxidant rich functional foods in preventing, managing and possibly treating breast cancer and postmenopausal osteoporosis cannot be overemphasised. This review mainly uses ISI, SCOPUS and PubMed indexed journals and books containing various experimental reports vacillating from humans, animals and in vitro studies in relation to breast cancer and postmenopausal osteoporosis, biochemical links and possible beneficial effects of functional foods. One distinct feature of the review is that it categorically intends to provide a critical appraisal on the said available experimental data within the variables of breast cancer and osteoporosis among females vis-à-vis the potentials of functional foods.
Lifestyle Modifications, such as; maintaining a healthy weight ( avoiding Obesity), Excercising ( avoidance of sedentary lifestyle), ensuring adequate hydration ( exchanging alcohol and sugary beverages with water a 100% Of The time), abstaining from Primary and Secondary Smoking and increased intake of functional foods, are imperative for limiting Oxidative Stress which is the key trigger for Breast Cancer, Osteoporosis, Diabetes, Cardiac Diseases, Stroke Incidents & Other Age-related diseases.
POST MENOPAUSAL WOMEN ARE AT RISK OF BREAST CANCER AND OSTEOPOROSIS
Women who have ceased to menstruate (Post-Menopausal Women), are more prone to breast cancer and osteoporosis. For most women, that’s from age 51- 55! At about this age, many changes begin to take place in your body as a woman, including a reduction in oestrogen levels, age-related obesity, slow renewal of depleted cells and tissues, including those of the bone and breast etc. All these are predisposing factors to breast cancer and osteoporosis.
*As you approach menopause, it’s important that you become more intentional with the lifestyle you lead ‘health-wise’, especially, your dietary habits*
No matter the stage of fertility you are in, make a conscious effort to incorporate functional foods into your diet.
Functional foods are foods that have beneficial effects on health beyond basic nutrition. E.g. carrots, tomatoes, soybean, fatty fish, grape(skin), flax seed, cabbage, walnut, tiger nuts etc. They also play a part in the promotion of health, prevention and management of such diseases as breast cancer and osteoporosis.
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